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GoStop Impulsivity Paradigm

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The GoStop Impulsivity Paradigm is a "stop task" designed to measure response inhibition.  The primary response of interest here is the failure to inhibit responding when a "go" cue is unexpectedly accompanied by a "stop" cue.  

In this task, 5-digit numbers are presented in rapid sequence.  Half of these numbers are target trials (matching stimuli) and half are filler trials (novel stimuli).  This task features stop" trials for half of all target trials, where the matching number presented in black (the go cue) changes to red (the stop cue) at intervals ranging from 50 to 350 msec after the stimulus presentation.  Participants are instructed to response while the matching number is still on the monitor, but not to respond if that number turns red.  The main impulsivity variable obtained from this task is the percentage of inhibition failures, which is calculated from the number of responses made to stop trials divided by the total number of stop trials.

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GoStop Impulsivity Paradigm Bibliography


The effects of heroin administration and drug cues on impulsivity

Jones JD, Vadhan NP, Luba RR, Comer SD.  (2016).

Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 38, 709-720.      PubMed

Do individuals higher in impulsivity drink more impulsively? A pilot study within a high risk sample of young adults.

Stevens AK, Littlefield AK, Talley AE, Brown JL.  (2016).

Addictive Behavior, 65, 147-153.     PubMed

Modeling impulsivity in forensic patients: A three-dimensional model of impulsivity

Tonnaer, F., CIma, M., and Arntz, A.  (2016).

American Journal of Psychology, 129, 429-441.

Machine-learning identifies substance-specific behavioral markers for opiate and stimulant dependence.

Ahn, W.Y., and Vassileva, J.  (2016).

Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 161, 247-257.      PubMed

Executive (Dys)Functioning and Impulsivity as Possible Vulnerability Factors for Aggression in Forensic Patients.

Tonnaer, F., Cima, M., and Arntz, A.  (2016)

Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 204, 280-286.      PubMed

The effects of oral d-amphetamine on impulsivity in smoked and intranasal cocaine users.

Reed, S. C., Evans, S. M.  (2016).

Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 163, 141-152.       PubMed

Neurocognitive and psychiatric dimensions of hot, but not cool, impulsivity predict HIV sexual risk behaviors among drug users in protracted abstinence.

Wilson, M. J., and Vassileva, J.  (2016).

American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 42, 231-241.     PubMed

Reduced cortical thickness and increased surface area in antisocial personality disorder

Jiang W, Li G, Liu H, Shi F, Wang T, Shen C, Shen H, Lee SW, Hu D, Wang W, Shen D.  (2016)

Neuroscience, 337, 143-152.      PubMed

Ruminative subtypes and impulsivity in risk for suicidal behavior.
Valderrama, J., Miranda, R., Jeglic, E. (2016).

Psychiatry Research, 236, 15-21.       PubMed

Effects of tryptophan depletion and a simulated alcohol binge on impulsivity

Dougherty, D. M., Mullen, J., Hill-Kapturczak, N., Liang, Y., Karns, T. E., Lake, S. L., Mathias, C. M., and Roache, J. D. (2015).

Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 23, 109-121.       PubMed

Tryptophan supplementation and the response to unfairness in healthy volunteers

Cerit H, Schuur RJ, de Bruijn ER, Van der Does W  (2015).

Frontiers in Psychology, 6:1012.     PubMed

Reduced inhibitory control predicts persistence in laboratory slot machine gambling

Deovs G, Clark L, Maurage P, Kazimierczuk M, and Billieux J  (2015).

International Gambling Studies, 15, 408-421.

Psychological predictors of opportunistic snacking in the absence of hunger

Fay SH, White MJ, Finlayson G, King NA.  (2015).

Eating Behaviors, 18, 156-159.       PubMed

Holding a silver lining theory: When negative attributes heighten performance

Wesnousky AE, Oettingen G, Gollwitzer PM (2015).

Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 57, 15-22.

Impact of stress on different components of impulsivity in borderline personality disorder

Cackowski S, Reitz AC, Ende G, Kleindienst N, Bohus M, Schmahl C, Krause-Utz A.  (2014)

Psychological Medicine, 44, 3329-3340.    PubMed

Impaired frontal-Basal Ganglia connectivity in adolescents with internet addiction

Li B, Friston KJ, Liu J, Liu Y, Zhang G, Cao F, Su L, Yao S, Lu H, Hu D  (2014).

Scientific Reports, 4, 5027.     PubMed

Heroin and amphetamine users display opposite relationships between trait and neurobehavioral dimensions of impulsivity

Vassileva J, Paxton J, Moeller FG, Wilson MJ, Bozgunov K, Martin EM, Gonzalez R, Vasilev G.  (2014).

Addictive Behavior, 39, 652-629.       PubMed

Dimensions of impulsive behavior and treatment outcomes for adolescent smokers

Harris M, Penfold RB, Hawkins A, Maccombs J, Wallace B, Reynolds B.  (2014).

Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 22, 57-64.       PubMed

Effects of heavy drinking on executive cognitive functioning in a community sample

Houston RJ, Derrick JL, Leonard, KE, Testa M, Quigley BM, Kubiak A.  (2014).

Addictive Behaviors, 39, 345-349.        PubMed

Relations among behavioral and questionnaire measures of impulsivity in a sample of suicide attempters

Bagge CL, Littlefield AK, Rosellini AJ, Coffey SF (2013)

Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 43, 460-467.       PubMed

Dimensions of impulsive behavior in obese, overweight, and healthy-weight adolescents

Fields SA, Sabet M, Reynolds B. (2013).

Appetite, 70, 60-66.     PubMed

Self-regulation, daily drinking, and partner violence in alcohol treatment-seeking men

Schumacher JA, Coffey SF, Leonard KE, O'Jile JR, Landy NC.  (2013)

Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 21, 17-28.     PubMed

Different subtypes of impulsivity differentiate uncontrolled eating and dietary restraint

Leitch MA, Morgan MJ, Yeomans MR.  (2013)

Appetite, 69, 54-63.     PubMed

It's what's inside that counts: The role of counterfactual content in intention formation

Smallman, R. (2013).

Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 49, 842-851.    

A double-blind trial of the effect of docosahexaenoic acid and vitamin and mineral supplementation on aggression,
impulsivity, and stress

Long S-J, Benton D.  (2013).

Human Psychopharmacology, 28, 238-247.       PubMed

Volunteerism and self-selection bias in human positron emission tomography neuroimaging research

Oswald LM, Wand GS, Zhu S, Selby V (2013).

Brain Imaging and Behavior, 7, 163-176.       PubMed

Utilizing a multimodal assessment strategy to examine variations of impulsivity among young adults engaged in co-occurring smoking and binge drinking behaviors
VanderVeen, J. W., Cohen, L. M., and Watson, N. L. (2013)

Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 127, 1250-155.       PubMed

Alcohol increases impulsivity and abuse liability in heavy drinking women

Reed, S. C., Levin, F. R., and Evans, S. M. (2012)

Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 20, 454-465.     PubMed

The relationship between self-report and lab task conceptualizations of impulsivity

Cyders, M. A., and Coskunpinar, A. (2012).

Journal of Research in Personality, 46, 121-124.

Executive Function in Pathological Gamblers and Healthy Controls.

Ledgerwood, D. M., Orr, E. S., Kaploun, K. A., Milosevic, A., Frisch, G. R., Rupcich, N., and Lundahl, L. H.  (2012).

Journal of Gambling Studies, 28, 89-103.     PubMed

Investigation of impulsivity in a sample of treatment-seeking pathological gamblers: A multidimensional perspective

Billieux, J., Lagrange, G., Van der Linden, M., Lancon, C., Adida, M, Jeanningros, R. (2012).

Psychiatry Research, 198, 291-296.     PubMed

Performance of young adult cannabis users on neurocognitive measures of impulsive behavior and their relationship to symptoms of cannabis use disorders

Gonzalez R, Schuster RM, Mermelstein RJ, Vassileva J, Martin EM, Diviak KR. (2012).

Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 34, 962-976.       PubMed

Intolerance to delayed reward in girls with multiple suicide attempts.

Mathias, C. W., Dougherty, D. M., James, L. M., Richard, D. M., Dawes, M. A., Acheson, A., and Hill-Kapturczak, N. (2011).

Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 41, 277-286.     PubMed     PubMed Central

Adults with a family history of alcohol related problems are more impulsive on measures of response initiation and response inhibition

Acheson, A., Richard, D. M., Mathias, C. W., and Dougherty, D. M. (2011).

Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 117, 198-203.     PubMed

The relationship between psychopathy and impulsivity: A multi-impulsivity measurement approach
Morgan, J. E., Gray, N. S., and Snowden, R. J. (2011).
Personality and Individual Differences, 51, 429-434

Decision making and response inhibition as predictors of heavy alcohol use: A prospective study
Goudriaan, A. E., Grekin, E. R., and Sher, K. J. (2011).
Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 35, 1050-1057.     PubMed     PubMed Central

Impulsivity and risk-taking in co-occurring psychotic disorders and substance abuse.

Duva, S. M., Silverstein, S. M., and Spiga, R.  (2011).

Psychiatry Research, 186, 351-355.     PubMed

Impulsivity and risk-taking in borderline personality disorder with and without substance use disorders.
Coffey, S. F., Schumacher, J. A., Baschnagel, J. S., Hawk, L. W., Holloman, G. (2011)
Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment, 2, 128-141

Effects of acute tryptophan depletion on three types of behavioral impulsivity

Dougherty, D. M., Richard, D. M., James, L. M., and Mathias, C. W. (2010).

International Journal of Tryptophan Research, 3, 99-111.

Lack of inhibitory control predicts cigarette smoking dependence: Evidence from a non-deprived sample of light to moderate smokers.

Billieux, J., Gay, P., Rochat, L, Khazaal, Y., Zullino, D., Van der Linden, M.  (2010).

Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 112, 164-167.     PubMed

The effects of progesterone pretreatment on the response to oral d-amphetamine in women

Reed, S. C., Levin, F. R., and Evans, S. M.  (2010).

Hormones and Behavior, 58, 533-543.     PubMed     PubMed Central

Effects of alcohol on tests of executive functioning in men and women: A dose response examination.

Guillot, C. R., Fanning, J. R., Bullock, J. S., McCloskey, M. S., and Berman, M. E.  (2010).

Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 18, 409-417.     PubMed

Features of functional MRI in children with Oppositional Defiant Disorder.

Liu, J., Zhu, Y., and Wu, Y. Z.  (2010).

Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban, 33, 571-575.     PubMed

Distinctions in behavioral impulsivity: Implications for substance abuse research.
Dougherty, D. M., Mathias, C. W.,Marsh-Richard, D. M., Furr, R. M., Nouvion, S. O., and Dawes, M. A. (2009). 
Addictive Disorders and Their Treatment, 8, 61-73.

Fifty years of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale: An update and review.
Stanford, M. S., Mathias, C. W., Dougherty, D. M., Lake, S. L., Anderson, N. E., and Patton, J. H. (2009).
Personality and Individual Differences, 47, 385-395

Impulsivity and clinical symptoms among adolescents with non-suicidal self-injury with or without attempted suicide.

Dougherty, D. M., Mathias, C. W.,Marsh-Richard, D. M., Prevette, K. N., Dawes, M. A., Hatzis, E. S., Palmes, G., and Nouvion, S. O. (2009). 

Psychiatry Research, 169, 22-27.     PubMed     PubMed Central

Dimensions of impulsivity in adolescent smokers and nonsmokers.

Fields, S., Collins, C., Leraas, K., and Reynolds, B. (2009).

Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 17, 302-311. PubMed     PubMed Central

Behavioral assessment of impulsivity in pathological gamblers with and without substance use disorder histories versus health controls.

Ledgerwood, D. M., Alessi, S. M., Phoenix, N., and Petry, N. M.  (2009).

Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 105, 89-96. PubMed     PubMed Central

Interaction between DRD2 C957T polymorphism and an acute psychosocial stressor on reward-related behavioral impulsivity.
White, M. J., Lawford, B. R., Morris C. P., and Young, R. McD. (2009).   
Behavior Genetics, 39, 285-295. PubMed

Attentional bias modification in tobacco smokers.

Field, M., Duka, T., Tyler, E., and Schoenmakers, T.  (2009).

Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 11, 812-822. PubMed

The effects of mindfulness on executive processes and autobiographical memory specificity.

Heeren, A., Van Broeck, N., and Philippot, P.  (2009).

Behaviour Research and Therapy, 47, 403-409.  PubMed

Are personality and behavioral measures of impulse control convergent or distinct predictors of health behaviors?

Edmonds, G. W., Bogg, T., and Roberts, B. W.  (2009)

Journal of Personality, 43, 806-814.

Severity of bipolar disorder is associated with impairment of response inhibition

Swann AC, Lijffijt M, Lane SD, Steinberg JL, Moeller FG. (2009)
Journal of Affective Disorders, 116, 30-36.     PubMed     PubMed Central

A test of alcohol dose effects on multiple behavioral measures of impulsivity.
Dougherty, D. M., Marsh-Richard, D. M., Hatzis, E. S., Nouvion, S. O., Mathias, C. W. (2008).   
Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 96, 111-120. PubMed    PubMed Central

Behavioral phenotypes of impulsivity related to the ANKK1 gene are independent of an acute stressor.
White, M. J., Morris C. P., Lawford, B. R., and Young, R. McD. (2008).   
Behavioral and Brain Functions, 4, 54. PubMed     PubMed Central

Features of functional MRI in children with oppositional defiant disorder.

Liu, J., Zhu, Y., Wu, Y.Z.  (2008).

Journal of Central South University (Medical Science), 33, 0571-0575. PubMed

The relationship between impulsivity and internet addiction in a sample of Chinese adolescents.
Cao, F., Su, L., Liu, T., and Gao, X.   (2007).   
European Psychiatry, 22, 466-471.  PubMed

Laboratory and self-report assessment of impulsive behavior in adolescent daily smokers and nonsmokers.
Reynolds, B., Patak, M., Shroff, P., Penfold, R. B., Melanko, S., and Duhig, A. M.  (2007).
Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 15, 264-271.  PubMed

Laboratory measures of impulsivity.
Dougherty, D. M., Mathias, C. W., Marsh, D. M., and Jagar, A. A. (2005).  
Behavior Research Methods, 37, 82-90. PubMed

Suicidal behaviors and drug abuse: Impulsivity and its assessment.
Dougherty, D. M., Mathias, C. W., Marsh, D.M., Moeller, F.G., and Swann, A. C. (2004).
Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 76, 93s-105s.  PubMed

Behavioral impulsivity paradigms: A comparison in hospitalized adolescents with disruptive behavior disorders. 
Dougherty, D. M., Bjork, J. M., Harper, R. A., Marsh, D. M., Moeller, F. G., Mathias, C. W., and Swann, A. C. (2003). 
Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 44, 1145-1157.  PubMed

Comparison of women with high and low trait impulsivity using laboratory impulsivity models of response-disinhibition and reward-choice.
Marsh, D. M., Dougherty, D. M., Mathias, C. W., Moeller, F. G., andHicks, L. R.  (2002). 
Personality and Individual Differences, 33, 1291-1310.

Laboratory measures of impulsivity in hospitalized adolescents with disruptive behavior disorders. 
Bjork, J. M., Dougherty, D. M., Moeller, F. G., Harper, R. A., Scott-Gurnell, K., and Swann, A. C.  (2000).
Biological Psychiatry, 47, 489.

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