Back to Software $150 Buy Now

GoStop Impulsivity Paradigm

The GoStop Impulsivity Paradigm is a "stop task" designed to measure response inhibition. The primary response of interest here is the failure to inhibit responding when a "go" cue is unexpectedly accompanied by a "stop" cue.

GoStop Impulsivity Paradigm

In this task, 5-digit numbers are presented in rapid sequence. Half of these numbers are target trials (matching stimuli) and half are filler trials (novel stimuli). This task features "stop" trials for half of all target trials, where the matching number presented in black (the go cue) changes to red (the stop cue) at intervals ranging from 50 to 350 msec after the stimulus presentation. Participants are instructed to response while the matching number is still on the monitor, but not to respond if that number turns red. The main impulsivity variable obtained from this task is the percentage of inhibition failures, which is calculated from the number of responses made to stop trials divided by the total number of stop trials.

GoStop Impulsivity Paradigm Bibliography

  • Laboratory measures of impulsivity in hospitalized adolescents with disruptive behavior disorders.

    Bjork, J. M., Dougherty, D. M., Moeller, F. G., Harper, R. A., Scott-Gurnell, K., and Swann, A. C. (2000).

    Biological Psychiatry, 47, 489.

  • Laboratory and self-report assessment of impulsive behavior in adolescent daily smokers and nonsmokers.

    Reynolds, B., Patak, M., Shroff, P., Penfold, R. B., Melanko, S., and Duhig, A. M. (2007).

    Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 15, 264-271 PubMed Icon

  • The relationship between impulsivity and internet addiction in a sample of Chinese adolescents.

    Cao, F., Su, L., Liu, T., and Gao, X. (2007).

    European Psychiatry, 22, 466-471. PubMed Icon

  • Features of functional MRI in children with oppositional defiant disorder. - 2008

    Liu, J., Zhu, Y., Wu, Y.Z. (2008).

    Journal of Central South University (Medical Science), 33, 0571-0575. PubMed Icon

  • The effects of mindfulness on executive processes and autobiographical memory specificity.

    Heeren, A., Van Broeck, N., and Philippot, P. (2009).

    Behaviour Research and Therapy, 47, 403-409. PubMed Icon

  • Attentional bias modification in tobacco smokers

    Field, M., Duka, T., Tyler, E., and Schoenmakers, T. (2009).

    Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 11, 812-822. PubMed Icon

  • Interaction between DRD2 C957T polymorphism and an acute psychosocial stressor on reward-related behavioral impulsivity.

    White, M. J., Lawford, B. R., Morris C. P., and Young, R. McD. (2009).

    Behavior Genetics, 39, 285-295 PubMed Icon

  • Dimensions of impulsivity in adolescent smokers and nonsmokers.

    Fields, S., Collins, C., Leraas, K., and Reynolds, B. (2009).

    Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 17, 302-311 PubMed Icon PubMed Central - Free Full Text Icon

  • Features of functional MRI in children with Oppositional Defiant Disorder.

    Liu, J., Zhu, Y., and Wu, Y. Z. (2010).

    Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban, 33, 571-575. PubMed Icon

  • Effects of alcohol on tests of executive functioning in men and women: A dose response examination.

    Guillot, C. R., Fanning, J. R., Bullock, J. S., McCloskey, M. S., and Berman, M. E. (2010).

    Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 18, 409-417. PubMed Icon

  • Lack of inhibitory control predicts cigarette smoking dependence: Evidence from a non-deprived sample of light to moderate smokers.

    Billieux, J., Gay, P., Rochat, L, Khazaal, Y., Zullino, D., Van der Linden, M. (2010).

    Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 112, 164-167. PubMed Icon

  • Impulsivity and risk-taking in borderline personality disorder with and without substance use disorders.

    Coffey, S. F., Schumacher, J. A., Baschnagel, J. S., Hawk, L. W., Holloman, G. (2011)

    Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment, 2, 128-141

  • Impulsivity and risk-taking in co-occurring psychotic disorders and substance abuse.

    Duva, S. M., Silverstein, S. M., and Spiga, R. (2011).

    Psychiatry Research, 186, 351-355. PubMed Icon

  • Decision making and response inhibition as predictors of heavy alcohol use: A prospective study

    Goudriaan, A. E., Grekin, E. R., and Sher, K. J. (2011).

    Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 35, 1050-1057. PubMed Icon PubMed Central - Free Full Text Icon

  • The relationship between psychopathy and impulsivity: A multi-impulsivity measurement approach

    Morgan, J. E., Gray, N. S., and Snowden, R. J. (2011).

    Personality and Individual Differences, 51, 429-434

  • Performance of young adult cannabis users on neurocognitive measures of impulsive behavior and their relationship to symptoms of cannabis use disorders

    Gonzalez R, Schuster RM, Mermelstein RJ, Vassileva J, Martin EM, Diviak KR. (2012).

    Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 34, 962-976. PubMed Icon

  • Investigation of impulsivity in a sample of treatment-seeking pathological gamblers: A multidimensional perspective

    Billieux, J., Lagrange, G., Van der Linden, M., Lancon, C., Adida, M, Jeanningros, R. (2012).

    Psychiatry Research, 198, 291-296. PubMed Icon

  • Executive Function in Pathological Gamblers and Healthy Controls.

    Ledgerwood, D. M., Orr, E. S., Kaploun, K. A., Milosevic, A., Frisch, G. R., Rupcich, N., and Lundahl, L. H. (2012).

    Journal of Gambling Studies, 28, 89-103. PubMed Icon

  • Utilizing a multimodal assessment strategy to examine variations of impulsivity among young adults engaged in co-occurring smoking and binge drinking behaviors

    VanderVeen, J. W., Cohen, L. M., and Watson, N. L. (2013)

    Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 127, 1250-155. PubMed Icon

  • A double-blind trial of the effect of docosahexaenoic acid and vitamin and mineral supplementation on aggression, impulsivity, and stress

    Long S-J, Benton D. (2013).

    Human Psychopharmacology, 28, 238-247. PubMed Icon

  • It’s what’s inside that counts: The role of counterfactual content in intention formation

    Smallman, R. (2013).

    Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 49, 842-851

  • Self-regulation, daily drinking, and partner violence in alcohol treatment-seeking men

    Schumacher JA, Coffey SF, Leonard KE, O'Jile JR, Landy NC. (2013)

    Appetite, 69, 54-63. PubMed Icon

  • Dimensions of impulsive behavior in obese, overweight, and healthy-weight adolescents

    Fields SA, Sabet M, Reynolds B. (2013).

    Appetite, 70, 60-66. PubMed Icon

  • Effects of heavy drinking on executive cognitive functioning in a community sample

    Houston RJ, Derrick JL, Leonard, KE, Testa M, Quigley BM, Kubiak A. (2014).

    Addictive Behaviors, 39, 345-349. PubMed Icon

  • Dimensions of impulsive behavior and treatment outcomes for adolescent smokers

    Harris M, Penfold RB, Hawkins A, Maccombs J, Wallace B, Reynolds B. (2014).

    Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 22, 57-64. PubMed Icon

  • Impaired frontal-Basal Ganglia connectivity in adolescents with internet addiction

    Li B, Friston KJ, Liu J, Liu Y, Zhang G, Cao F, Su L, Yao S, Lu H, Hu D (2014).

    Scientific Reports, 4, 5027. PubMed Icon

  • Impact of stress on different components of impulsivity in borderline personality disorder

    Cackowski S, Reitz AC, Ende G, Kleindienst N, Bohus M, Schmahl C, Krause-Utz A. (2014)

    Psychological Medicine, 44, 3329-3340. PubMed Icon

  • Holding a silver lining theory: When negative attributes heighten performance

    Wesnousky AE, Oettingen G, Gollwitzer PM (2015).

    Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 57, 15-22.

  • Psychological predictors of opportunistic snacking in the absence of hunger

    Fay SH, White MJ, Finlayson G, King NA. (2015).

    Eating Behaviors, 18, 156-159. PubMed Icon

  • Reduced inhibitory control predicts persistence in laboratory slot machine gambling

    Deovs G, Clark L, Maurage P, Kazimierczuk M, and Billieux J (2015).

    International Gambling Studies, 15, 408-421.

  • Tryptophan supplementation and the response to unfairness in healthy volunteers

    Cerit H, Schuur RJ, de Bruijn ER, Van der Does W (2015).

    Frontiers in Psychology, 6:1012. PubMed Icon

  • Ruminative subtypes and impulsivity in risk for suicidal behavior.

    Valderrama, J., Miranda, R., Jeglic, E. (2016).

    Psychiatry Research, 236, 15-21. PubMed Icon

  • Reduced cortical thickness and increased surface area in antisocial personality disorder

    Jiang W, Li G, Liu H, Shi F, Wang T, Shen C, Shen H, Lee SW, Hu D, Wang W, Shen D. (2016)

    Neuroscience, 337, 143-152. PubMed Icon

  • Executive (Dys)Functioning and Impulsivity as Possible Vulnerability Factors for Aggression in Forensic Patients.

    Tonnaer, F., Cima, M., and Arntz, A. (2016)

    Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 204, 280-286. PubMed Icon

  • Modeling impulsivity in forensic patients: A three-dimensional model of impulsivity

    Tonnaer, F., CIma, M., and Arntz, A. (2016).

    American Journal of Psychology, 129, 429-441.

  • Suicidal behaviors and drug abuse: impulsivity and its assessment.

    Dougherty DM, Mathias CW, Marsh DM, Moeller FG, Swann AC (2004).

    Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 76s, s93-s105 PubMed Icon

  • Are personality and behavioral measures of impulse control convergent or distinct predictors of health behaviors?

    Edmonds GW, Bogg, T, and Roberts, BW (2009)

    Journal of Personality, 43, 806-814.

  • Behavioral assessment of impulsivity in pathological gamblers with and without substance use disorder histories versus health controls.

    Ledgerwood DM, Alessi SM, Phoenix N, Petry NM (2009).

    Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 105, 89-96 PubMed Icon PubMed Central - Free Full Text Icon

  • Severity of bipolar disorder is associated with impairment of response inhibition.

    Swann AC, Lijffijt M, Lane SD, Moeller FG (2009).

    Journal of Affective Disorders, 116, 30-36. PubMed Icon PubMed Central - Free Full Text Icon

  • The effects of progesterone pretreatment on the response to oral d-amphetamine in women

    Reed, SC, Levin FR, and Evans SM (2010).

    Hormones and Behavior, 58, 533-543. PubMed Icon PubMed Central - Free Full Text Icon

  • The relationship between self-report and lab task conceptualizations of impulsivity

    Cyders MA, and Coskunpinar A (2012).

    Journal of Research in Personality, 46, 121-124.

  • Alcohol increases impulsivity and abuse liability in heavy drinking women

    Reed SC, Levin FR, Evans SM. (2012)

    Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 20, 454-465. PubMed Icon

  • Relations among behavioral and questionnaire measures of impulsivity in a sample of suicide attempters

    Bagge CL, Littlefield AK, Rosellini AJ, Coffey SF (2013)

    Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 43, 460-467. PubMed Icon

  • Heroin and amphetamine users display opposite relationships between trait and neurobehavioral dimensions of impulsivity

    Vassileva J, Paxton J, Moeller FG, Wilson MJ, Bozgunov K, Martin EM, Gonzalez R, Vasilev G. (2014).

    Addictive Behavior, 39, 652-629. PubMed Icon

  • Neurocognitive and psychiatric dimensions of hot, but not cool, impulsivity predict HIV sexual risk behaviors among drug users in protracted abstinence.

    Wilson, M. J., and Vassileva, J. (2016).

    American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 42, 231-241. PubMed Icon

  • The effects of oral d-amphetamine on impulsivity in smoked and intranasal cocaine users.

    Reed, S. C., Evans, S. M. (2016).

    Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 163, 141-152. PubMed Icon

  • Machine-learning identifies substance-specific behavioral markers for opiate and stimulant dependence.

    Ahn, W.Y., and Vassileva, J. (2016).

    Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 161, 247-257. PubMed Icon

  • Do individuals higher in impulsivity drink more impulsively? A pilot study within a high risk sample of young adults.

    Stevens AK, Littlefield AK, Talley AE, Brown JL. (2016).

    Addictive Behavior, 65, 147-153. PubMed Icon

  • The effects of heroin administration and drug cues on impulsivity

    Jones JD, Vadhan NP, Luba RR, Comer SD. (2016).

    Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 38, 709-720. PubMed Icon

  • Effects of tryptophan depletion and a simulated alcohol binge on impulsivity.

    Dougherty, D. M., Mullen, J., Hill-Kapturczak, N., Liang, Y., Karns, T. E., Lake, S. L., Mathias, C. M., and Roache, J. D. (2015).

    Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 23, 109-121. PubMed Icon PubMed Central - Free Full Text Icon

  • Intolerance to delayed reward in girls with multiple suicide attempts.

    Mathias, C. W., Dougherty, D. M., James, L. M., Richard, D. M., Dawes, M. A., Acheson, A., and Hill-Kapturczak, N. (2011).

    Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 41, 277-286. PubMed Icon PubMed Central - Free Full Text Icon

  • Adults with a family history of alcohol related problems are more impulsive on measures of response initiation and response inhibition.

    Acheson, A., Richard, D. M., Mathias, C. W., and Dougherty, D. M. (2011).

    Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 117, 198-203. PubMed Icon PubMed Central - Free Full Text Icon

  • Effects of acute tryptophan depletion on three types of behavioral impulsivity.

    Dougherty, D. M., Richard, D. M., James, L. M., and Mathias, C. W. (2010).

    International Journal of Tryptophan Research, 3, 99-111. PubMed Icon PubMed Central - Free Full Text Icon

  • Impulsivity and clinical symptoms among adolescents with non-suicidal self-injury with or without attempted suicide.

    Dougherty, D. M., Mathias, C. W., Marsh-Richard, D. M., Prevette, K. N., Dawes, M. A., Hatzis, E. S., Palmes, G., and Nouvion, S. O. (2009)

    Psychiatry Research, 169, 22-27 PubMed Icon PubMed Central - Free Full Text Icon

  • Distinctions in behavioral impulsivity: Implications for substance abuse research.

    Dougherty, D. M., Mathias, C. W., Marsh-Richard, D. M., Furr, R. M., Nouvion, S. O., and Dawes, M. A. (2009)

    Addictive Disorders and Their Treatment, 8, 61-73. PubMed Icon PubMed Central - Free Full Text Icon

  • Fifty years of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale: An update and review.

    Stanford, M. S., Mathias, C. W., Dougherty, D. M., Lake, S. L., Anderson, N. E., and Patton, J. H.. (2009).

    Personality and Individual Differences, 47, 385-395.

  • A test of alcohol dose effects on multiple behavioral measures of impulsivity.

    Dougherty, D. M., Marsh-Richard, D. M., Hatzis, E. S., Nouvion, S. O., and Mathias, C. W. (2008).

    Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 96, 111-120. PubMed Icon PubMed Central - Free Full Text Icon

  • Laboratory behavioral measures of impulsivity.

    Mathias, C. W., Marsh, D.M., and Dougherty, D. M. (2006).

    In N. J. Salkind and K. Rasmussen (Eds.), The Encyclopedia of Measurement and Statistics Vol 2. (pp. 525-526).
    Sage Publications; Thousand Oaks, California.

  • Behavioral impulsivity paradigms: A comparison in hospitalized adolescents with disruptive behavior disorders.

    Dougherty, D. M., Bjork, J. M., Harper, R. A., Marsh, D. M., Moeller, F. G., Mathias, C. W, and Swann, A. C. (2003).

    Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 44, 1145-1157. PubMed Icon

  • Comparison of women with high and low trait impulsivity using laboratory impulsivity models of response-disinhibition and reward-choice.

    Marsh, D. M., Dougherty, D. M., Mathias, C. W., Moeller, F. G., and Hicks, L. R. (2002).

    Personality and Individual Differences, 33, 1291-1310.